2017-04-06 14:29:09 +0000   |     algorithm leetcode array   |   Viewed times   |    

题目

Determine if a Sudoku is valid. The Sudoku board could be partially filled, where empty cells are filled with the character ‘.’. sudoku

A partially filled sudoku which is valid.

Note: A valid Sudoku board (partially filled) is not necessarily solvable. Only the filled cells need to be validated.

The 3 Rules that a valid Sudoku must obey are: sudoku-rules-1 sudoku-rules-2 sudoku-rules-3

按照3条规则,一条条来

先检查数组大小,是不是9x9见方。 再逐行检查,是不是每行都满足条件1. 再逐列检查,是不是每列都满足条件2. 再按照3x3小方格检查,是不是每个方格都满足条件3.

每次检查都事先准备一个{'1','2','3','4','5','6','7','8','9'}ArrayListcontains()每找到一个数字就从列表里remove()

代码

public class Solution {
    public boolean isValidSudoku(char[][] board) {
        if (board.length != 9 || board[0].length != 9) { return false; }
        List<Character> nums = new ArrayList<>(Arrays.asList(new Character[]{'1','2','3','4','5','6','7','8','9'}));
        if (! checkLine(board,nums)) { return false; }
        if (! checkColumn(board,nums)) { return false; }
        if (! checkSubBox(board,nums)) { return false; }
        return true;
    }
    public boolean checkLine(char[][] board, List<Character> nums) {
        for (int i = 0; i < board.length; i++) { // loop line
            List<Character> copyNums = new ArrayList<>(nums);
            for (int j= 0; j < board.length; j++) { // loop column
                char num = board[i][j];
                if (num != '.' && ! copyNums.contains(num)) {
                    return false;
                } else if (num != '.') {
                    copyNums.remove(new Character(num));
                }
            }
        }
        return true;
    }
    public boolean checkColumn(char[][] board, List<Character> nums) {
        for (int j = 0; j < board.length; j++) { // loop column
            List<Character> copyNums = new ArrayList<>(nums);
            for (int i= 0; i < board.length; i++) { // loop line
                char num = board[i][j];
                if (num != '.' && ! copyNums.contains(num)) {
                    return false;
                } else if (num != '.') {
                    copyNums.remove(new Character(num));
                }
            }
        }
        return true;
    }
    public boolean checkSubBox(char[][] board, List<Character> nums) {
        for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) { // loop line
            for (int j = 0; j < 3; j++) { // loop column
                List<Character> copyNums = new ArrayList<>(nums);
                if (! checkThreeThreeBox(board,i*3,j*3,copyNums)) { return false; }
            }
        }
        return true;
    }
    public boolean checkThreeThreeBox(char[][] board, int startHeight, int startWidth, List<Character> nums) {
        for (int i = startHeight; i < startHeight+3; i++) { // loop line
            for (int j = startWidth; j < startWidth+3; j++) { // loop column
                char num = board[i][j];
                if (num != '.' && ! nums.contains(num)) {
                    return false;
                } else if (num != '.') {
                    nums.remove(new Character(num));
                }
            }
        }
        return true;
    }
}

结果

还有提升空间。 valid-sudoku-1

考虑用BitMap来记录出现过的数字

ArrayList太贵了。考虑用位操作的BitMap来记录数字出现历史信息。

用一个int低9位 做一个BitMap,分别代表1-9九个数字有没有出现过。

1的左位移做掩码,比如,

...000000001    1 << 0
...000000010    1 << 1
...000000100    1 << 2
...000001000    1 << 3
...000010000    1 << 4
...000100000    1 << 5
...001000000    1 << 6
...010000000    1 << 7
...100000000    1 << 8

BitMap0初始化。每来一个数字,用&操作判断之前是否出现过。

...000000000    
...000000001    & 操作       // 检测1有没有出现过
---------------------------
...000000000                // 结果为0。说明1没有出现过。

如果一个数字没有出现过,就用|操作,在BigMap的对应位写上1

...000000000    
...000000001    | 操作       
---------------------------
...000000001                // BitMap上现在记录了1已经出现过。

&操作需要同一位上都是1,才返回1

0011 1100
0000 1101       & 操作        // 两个都是1,才是1.
-----------------------------
0000 1100

|操作只要同一位有一个是1,就返回1

0011 1100
0000 1101       | 操作        // 有一个是1,就是1.
-----------------------------
0011 1101

代码

public class Solution {
    public boolean isValidSudoku(char[][] board) {
        if (board.length != 9 || board[0].length != 9) { return false; }
        // assertion: size of array = 9 x 9
        if (! checkLine(board)) { return false; }
        if (! checkColumn(board)) { return false; }
        if (! checkSubBox(board)) { return false; }
        return true;
    }
    // if not duplicate number return the updated bitMap
    // return MAX_VALUE if duplicate found
    public int checkBitMap(int bitMap, char c) {
        int num = c - '0';
        if (num > 0 && num <= 9) { // 0-9的数字
            int mask = 1 << (num-1);
            if ( (bitMap & mask) == mask ) { // 数字重复
                return Integer.MAX_VALUE;
            } else {
                bitMap = bitMap | mask; // 数字没出现过,就把数字写进bitMap
            }
        } else {
            if (c != '.') { return Integer.MAX_VALUE; } //错误数字,既不是0-9,又不是‘.’
        }
        return bitMap;
    }
    public boolean checkLine(char[][] board) {
        for (int i = 0; i < board.length; i++) { // loop line
            int bitMap = 0;
            for (int j= 0; j < board.length; j++) { // loop column
                bitMap = checkBitMap(bitMap,board[i][j]);
                if (bitMap == Integer.MAX_VALUE) { return false; }
            }
        }
        return true;
    }
    public boolean checkColumn(char[][] board) {
        for (int j = 0; j < board.length; j++) { // loop column
            int bitMap = 0;
            for (int i= 0; i < board.length; i++) { // loop line
                bitMap = checkBitMap(bitMap,board[i][j]);
                if (bitMap == Integer.MAX_VALUE) { return false; }
            }
        }
        return true;
    }
    public boolean checkSubBox(char[][] board) {
        for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) { // loop line
            for (int j = 0; j < 3; j++) { // loop column
                if (! checkThreeThreeBox(board,i*3,j*3)) { return false; }
            }
        }
        return true;
    }
    public boolean checkThreeThreeBox(char[][] board, int startHeight, int startWidth) {
        int bitMap = 0;
        for (int i = startHeight; i < startHeight+3; i++) { // loop line
            for (int j = startWidth; j < startWidth+3; j++) { // loop column
                bitMap = checkBitMap(bitMap,board[i][j]);
                if (bitMap == Integer.MAX_VALUE) { return false; }
            }
        }
        return true;
    }
}

结果

快了一倍。 valid-sudoku-2

只遍历一次的解法

因为是9x9见方的数组,其实可以通过换算遍历指针,同时做行检验,列检验,和方块检验。

思路是,假设有ij两个指针,分别遍历0-8

for (int i = 0; i < board.length; i++) {
    for (int j = 0; j < board.length; j++) {
        // check line
        // check column
        // check box
    }
}

行检验就是正常的board[i][j]。列检验取下标board[j][i]。方块检验需要换算一下。把9x9看成两层套嵌的3x3。第一层3x3的大box。每个大box打开,都有3x3的小box。i负责定位大box的index,j负责定位小box的index。

比如说,i=4,j=6的情况,

i = 4

4/3 = 1     //第2行的大box
4%3 = 1     //第2列的大box
--------------------------------
            //所以是九宫格中间的那个3x3大box
j = 6

6/3 = 2     //第3行的小box
6%3 = 0     //第1列的小box
--------------------------------
            //所以是中心3x3大box里的:第3行,第1列那个小box

取得的小box的坐标具体为:board[boxLineIndex*3+j/3][boxColumnIndex*3+j%3]

代码

public class Solution {
    public boolean isValidSudoku(char[][] board) {
        if (board.length != 9 || board[0].length != 9) { return false; }
        // assertion: size of array = 9 x 9
        for (int i = 0; i < board.length; i++) {
            int lineBitMap = 0;
            int columnBitMap = 0;
            int boxBitMap = 0;
            for (int j = 0; j < board.length; j++) {
                // check for line
                lineBitMap = checkBitMap(lineBitMap,board[i][j]);
                if (lineBitMap == Integer.MAX_VALUE) { return false; }
                // check for column
                columnBitMap = checkBitMap(columnBitMap,board[j][i]);
                if (columnBitMap == Integer.MAX_VALUE) { return false; }
                // check for each box
                int boxLineIndex = i/3;
                int boxColumnIndex = i%3;
                boxBitMap = checkBitMap(boxBitMap,board[boxLineIndex*3+j/3][boxColumnIndex*3+j%3]);
                if (boxBitMap == Integer.MAX_VALUE) { return false; }
            }
        }
        return true;
    }
    /**
     * if not duplicate number return the updated bitMap
     * return MAX_VALUE if duplicate found
     */
    public int checkBitMap(int bitMap, char c) {
        int num = c - '0';
        if (num > 0 && num <= 9) { // number 0-9
            int mask = 1 << (num-1);
            if ( (bitMap & mask) == mask ) { // duplicate number
                return Integer.MAX_VALUE;
            } else {
                bitMap = bitMap | mask; // first occurrence
            }
        } else {
            if (c != '.') { return Integer.MAX_VALUE; } // wrong char, neither 0-9, nor "."
        }
        return bitMap;
    }
}

不用BitMap,换成现成的HashSet,代码更简洁

public class Solution {
    public boolean isValidSudoku(char[][] board) {
        for(int i = 0; i<9; i++){
            HashSet<Character> rows = new HashSet<Character>();
            HashSet<Character> columns = new HashSet<Character>();
            HashSet<Character> cube = new HashSet<Character>();
            for (int j = 0; j < 9;j++){
                if(board[i][j]!='.' && !rows.add(board[i][j])) { return false; }
                if(board[j][i]!='.' && !columns.add(board[j][i])){ return false; }
                int RowIndex = 3*(i/3);
                int ColIndex = 3*(i%3);
                if(board[RowIndex + j/3][ColIndex + j%3]!='.' && !cube.add(board[RowIndex + j/3][ColIndex + j%3])) { return false; }
            }
        }
        return true;
    }
}

结果

valid-sudoku-3